The Pug is thought to be one of the oldest breeds of dog on record, even though the first recorded appearance of the word pug in the English language did not occur until 1566. It was not until the middle of the next century that, according to The Oxford English Dictionary, the term pug came to mean “a dwarf breed of dog resembling a bull-dog in miniature”. Pugs are believed to have originated in the Orient, namely China, where they were documented by Confucius as early as 551 BC. We also know that the common forbearers for the Pug are the Pekingese and the Lion Dog. Pugs (or Lo-Sze which is an early name for pug) were considered prized possessions by Chinese emperors. Some were even given their own palaces, servants and guards. The Chinese sent Pugs as gifts to important individuals throughout Korea and Japan, thus spreading the popularity of these charming little dogs. The Dutch East India Company had a huge influence on the spread of the breed. Development of these important trade routes between Europe and the Far East brought Pugs to Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, France and England. Often times, soldiers gave them as gifts to loved ones when returning from China. Even though Pugs were well known in Italy and Spain throughout the eighteenth century, the Dutch are generally credited with being the agents of the Pug importation in Europe. It is in England where the blueprint of today’s modern Pug took shape. By 1800 two distinct strains dominated English bloodlines. The earlier was the Morrison line, and the later was the Willoughby line. Together, these lines are the key foundation to our Pugs today. In eighteenth century Britain, Pugs were considered highly fashionable both in court and among people with discerning taste. David Garrick, an English actor, once wrote, “A fine lady…keeps a pug dog and hates the Parsons”.